Pond sludge is a common problem in garden ponds, at some point it needs to be removed before it gets out of control.
What is pond sludge?
Pond sludge is an accumulation of organic waste that sits on the bottom of your garden pond and slowly decomposes over time, if you own a pond I’m pretty sure you will have sludge, it’s just the nature of your pond.
The sludge is usually made up from lots of organic materials, mainly fish waste, plant debris such as leaves, dead algae and waste being washed or blown into the pond, the type of sludge that you have depends on your surroundings.
Not everyone calls it sludge, you might hear it called muck, mulm, silt, crud or sediment, but its all the same, horrible slimy sludge.
Can pond sludge be harmful?
In normal circumstances a thin build up of pond sludge shouldn’t be harmful.
It only becomes a problem if it’s left to build up to levels where it does become an issue, at this point something needs to be done.
Problems arise when the decomposed organic waste removes large amounts of oxygen from the water, this results in less oxygen for your fish and the healthy bacteria that your pond needs.
It then becomes a catch 22 scenarios, with less oxygen the healthy aerobic bacteria that really on oxygen to do their job start to die back and the sludge builds up, then the bad anerobic bacteria that doesn’t need oxygen starts to thrive and produces hydrogen sulfide. this will carry on until the sludge is removed.
As oygen is restored the bad anerobic bacteris die back and the good aerobic bacteria takes over again, this will carry on until the sludge is removed.
There can also be an odor coming from your pond often smelling like bad eggs, especially if you disturb the sludge, this is the hydrogen sulfide produced by the anerobic bacteria which is very toxic to anything living in your pond.
If the sludge gets to a dangerous level the pond will suffer and your fish might die, so the quicker you clean out the sludge the better.
Sludge also kills the slimy layer of healthy algae that sits on the bottom of your pond by sealing off the oxygen the algae needs to live.
The smaller the pond the bigger the problem as they tend to have a more delicate ecosystem.
How do you remove sludge from your pond?
You can physically remove the sludge from the bottom of your garden pond by hand, this can be very messy, but if your like me it can be very rewarding.
Just reach into your pond and grab as much of the slime as you can, pull it out and get rid of it, by the way it’s a good natural fertiliser that you can use in your garden.
The hand method is good but it’s not going to get all the sludge out, for this it’s a good idea to use a pond vacuum, this will get into all the awkward areas around rocks and loose sludge that’s in your pond.
Cleaning a pond of sludge can be very satisfying and pretty easy to do, the vacuum is a great way to get rid of most of the sludge, you will be surprised how good your pond will look after a good clean out plus your water will be a lot healthier.
Read our review on the best pond vacuums here.
You can use a sludge remover after you have removed the majority of sludge, they consist of healthy bacteria that digest the sludge, even after the sludge has been physically removed you might still have a bad odor coming from your pond which can’t be physically removed, using a sludge remover will also sort that out.
You don’t have to worry about sludge removers harming your pond as they are merely healthy bacteria, there are no chemicals involved. They can take up to 2 weeks before you see a real results depending on how much sludge is left in your pond.
Although you can use sludge removers in ponds without physically removing sludge first we don’t recommend this approach especially if you have a large sludge problem.
Your pond will be low in oxygen at this point, adding a sludge remover with good bacteria in to a pond with low oxygen is not the best solution, the good bacteria won’t be able to function very effectively as it needs plenty of oxygen to do its job.
If you are going to use a sludge remover wait until the weather warms up as the good bacteria works better in warmer temperatures although you can buy cold weather pond sludge removers.
Once you have added a sludge remover to your pond keep an eye on your filter system, it will need cleaning more regularly as the sludge is removed, this is normal and shows that the process is working.
There are plenty of pond sludge removers to choose from, check out these on amazon.co.uk
You’re never going to get rid of all the sludge, what you need to do now is keep it under control.
As a last resort you could do a complete drain and clean of your pond, as we say this would be a last resort as it could easily destroy the pond’s ecosystem which you would have to start all over again, if you do go for a complete drain and clean use a holding tank to keep as much of the water that you can and don’t use a power washer to blast away all the algae.
Can you prevent sludge forming in the first place?
As we said at the start of this article it’s the nature of the pond to have sludge so your’e not going to be able to completely stop sludge but there are some things you can do to reduce the build up.
Sludge is a build up of fish waste and organic waste in your pond, so if you can reduce the amount of these wastes you reduce the amount of sludge.
One of the most common reasons for pond sludge is leaves that have fallen into your pond not being removed, over time they will get water logged and sink to the bottom, once they reach the bottom of your pond they will decompose.
Fish waste is a real problem, but with a good filtration system and not overstocking your pond the amount of waste that settles on the bottom of your pond can be reduced.
Over feeding your fish also has an impact on the sludge problem, uneaten food will simply sink to the bottom of your pond which adds to the build up of sludge.
Also the more fish you have in your pond the more oxygen they are going to need and use, oxygen is needed to help with the decomposition of the waste, if your fish are using most of the oxygen there is little left to help decompose all the waste which turns to sludge.
Adding beneficial bacteria directly into your pond will help with the ecosystem, building strong bacterial colonies in your pond and filter, you can buy them from amazon.co.uk.
To help the bacterial colonies do their job you can add aeration into the pond, these will add oxygen into the water.
Aerators will also help fish get enough oxygen if you do have a problem with sludge.
Keeping organic waste out of the pond such as leaves can be done by putting a net over the pond especially during the Autumn months.
If you have pond plants remove any dead or dying foliage before they drop off into your pond.
The more waste you can keep from sinking to the bottom of your pond the less sludge is going to build up.